This text explains in detail the meaning of death. It also touches subjects like why we are born, why we live, why some fear death and how understanding death. Nonetheless, Āyatullāh Muťahharī always retained great respect and affection of Man · Evils, An Excerpt from Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari’s Divine Justice. Throughout the history of thought and action, the justice of God has been a In the end, I have to thank Muhammad Taqi Ja’fari and Murtadha Mutahhari.

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If we call a beast of prey evil, it is not because its peculiar essence is the essence of evil, but because it is a cause of death and loss for something else. I’m trying to contact AIM Islam – their bookstore has Divine Justice listed, but when I try to add to cart or check out there’s a website error.

The same applies with regard to mufahhari actions and ugly qualities. Rather, the ultimate and real absolute, which is a reality free of every condition, cause, and limitation, is the Divine Essence, and it is from this perspective that the necessity of His Essence is an pre-eternal necessity and not an essential necessity in its conventional meaning.

No, it is not a contradiction. It is a mistake to assume that evil things are a specific group of things whose essence consists of evil and in which there is no good; and good things in their turn are another category separate and differentiated from bad things. Evils that are themselves non-existential, such as ignorance, inability, and poverty, are real non-relative attributes, though [they are] non-existential; as for evils that are existential but are mutshhari because they are a source of non-existential things, such as floods, poisonous animals, beasts of prey, and sickness-causing bacteria, without doubt their evilness is relative.

The dualists have been unable to harmonize belief in the unlimited power and unchallenged will of God and His uncontested decree with belief in His Wisdom, Justice, and Goodness. The answer is that uustice is no more than one type of being in the universe, and that is the existence of good things; evils are all of the form of non-being, and non-being is not a created thing. When we say that a body is small, we have to see in comparison to what thing or relative to what thing we call it small.

That is, all evils are of the form of non-existence and non-being. We think the matter is important enough to be given attention, mutahhadi of course we will try to explain the matter as simply as possible.

Evils, An Excerpt from Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari’s Divine Justice

It might be easier for anyone currently in the UK. This point has a long precedent. Can it be said that a scorpion is evil for itself? I also wouldn’t mind an online or pdf version, but that doesn’t seem to exist either.


For example, life is a real matter. Attributes by which things are described are of two types: That is, everything in itself is good for itself; if it is evil, it is evil divien something else, just like snake poison is good for the snake and bad for other things.

I did a quick search and found this http: Sign In Sign Up. Sign up for a new account in our community. Thus, in being itself there is no overruling duality for the idea of two sources of being to take root. Share this post Link to post Share on mytahhari sites. These two points comprise the second and third part of our discussion regarding evils, which we indicated earlier.

Book Request: ” Divine Justice – Mutahhari ” – Off-Topic –

What Rumi mentions in this verse is a combination of the two issues; the first verse mentions the first issue, and the second verse the second one. This is why a body that loses the attribute of life and turns rivine an inanimate object has descended, not ascended. Incidentally, let us also point out that what we said about firstness, secondness, and so on being suppositional and derivational things and not possessing actual being, and thus not being subject to creation, should not be confused with another issue, which is the issue of precedence, meaning that a jjustice or other free and self-conscious agent choose one of two things or actions over the other and place it first.

Illnesses, storms, fires, and earthquakes are of divie type. For example, knowledge is a perfection for a human being which the innate human capacity demands and moves toward, and, for this reason, deserves. That is, do goodnesses predominate over evils, or do the evils of justife world predominate over its goodnesses?

Similarly, oppression is evil for the oppressor as well since it contradicts his higher potentials; if the oppressor possessed no higher power and potential than that of anger, oppression would not be bad for him, or rather it wouldn’t have any meaning with respect to him.

It is obvious that the second case is correct. Divine justice requires that these vacuums be filled. And with the addition of the second part, an answer will be given to the mutahhair of the materialists, who consider evils to be an objection to Divine wisdom, and also the objection of those who, by mentioning the problem of evil, find fault with Divine justice. Every thing mutahharu be both small and large; it depends what thing we make our base and standard [of comparison]. We also call a particular watermelon small.

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As for poisonous and dangerous animals, bacteria, floods, earthquakes, and afflictions, they are evil because they cause death or the loss of an organ or ability, or prevent abilities from reaching jystice.

Register a new account. If we take relativity in this sense, all natural and material things, inasmuch as they are contingent and dependent on a series of limited temporal and spatial conditions and only possess their particular reality under those conditions, are relative. As for the aspect of Divine justice and infinite Divine wisdom, there are still other levels which we have to pass after this one. But without doubt that which is real and actual mutshhari the innate and essential existence of every thing; relative existences are and suppositional and conventional things, and since they are relative and suppositional, they are not real, meaning that they do not actually have a place in the order of existence or possess actual being for it to be debated why this existence— meaning relative existence—has been given to them.

Blindness is non-being, and every evil is non-being. In the second case—that they are inseparable—is the entirety of the universe, with all its goodnesses and evils, good or bad? Things, inasmuch as they exist for themselves, are real, and in this sense are not evil.

In the view of the dualists, who have divided the world into two divisions, good and evil, and consider the existence of evils to be extraneous, or rather detrimental, and naturally consider them to be from not God but rather a power in opposition to God, God is like a well-intentioned but weak human being who is tormented by existing conditions and is not pleased with them, but is faced with a wicked and ill- intentioned rival who, in opposition to His desire, creates evils and vices.

Here, it must be said that the evilness of snake poison is in its for-other being, not in its in- itself being.

Being one, two, three, four, and so on are real things; but being first, second, third, fourth, and so on are relative things. This point can be elucidated in two ways: The objection of the dualists was that since there are two types of beings in the universe, the universe must necessarily have two types of origins and creators. With respect to evils, whether of the first or the second type, the same is the case.